An extrajudicial provincial level detention facility commonly managed by the MPS, but also by the MSS, for detainees awaiting transfer to their local MPS detention centre or precinct. Detainees have typically been refouled from China. Detainees who were arrested for travelling without required documentation are detained in a separate holding centre for domestic travellers.
Types of Penal Facilities
Detention facility, often managed by the MPS, where suspects accused of crimes are temporarily held prior to pre-trial examination or transfer to another detention facility.
Detention facility managed by the MPS and MSS on the city-, county-, district-, provincial-, and national-levels. This category of facility detains suspects undergoing pre-trial examination and detainees who have been sentenced and are awaiting transfer to a further penal facility.
Officaly ‘Rodong Kyoyangdae’, commonly ‘Rodong Danryondae’
Labour training centre
City-, county-, or district-level detention facility managed by the MPS and PCNK. It holds detainees sentenced to an administrative penalty of short-term labour for between five days and 6 months (rodong kyoyang chobol). Administrative penalties served at labour training centres are based on the 2011 Administrative Punishment Law.
Commonly referred to as rodong danryondae, rodong kyoyangso or song danryondae
Labour training camp
Provincial- and national-level detention facility managed by the MPS for detainees sentenced to 6-12 months (rodong danryon hyong) for non-political crimes. Detainees sentenced to labour training camps retain their citizenship and party membership. Sentences served at labour training camps are based on the revised 2015 criminal code.
Detention facility managed by the MPS for detainees convicted of non-political crimes and who have been handed a re-education sentence (rodong kyohwa hyong) of between 1 and 15 years or a life sentence. Detainees sentenced to re-education camps are deprived of their citizenship and party membership. Sentences served at re-education camps are based on the revised 2015 criminal code.
kwalliso, but commonly referred to as chongchibom suyongso
Political prison camp
A detention facility managed by the MSS, but also by the MPS, for detainees sentenced with political crimes.
Closed detention facility
A detention facility, generally documented as managed by the MSS, whose location has been unidentified but is reserved for detainees charged with political crimes and who are undergoing investigation and for detainees who have been sentenced to a political prison camp and are awaiting transfer.
Other facilities include kkotjebi relief stations, which are facilities housing homeless people run by the PCNK, and rural construction unit facilities (nongchon gonsoldae), which are facilities for state-owned enterprises established across North Korea for public construction of roads and houses in rural regions. These institutions are temporarily repurposed to detain people when regular detention facilities, generally belonging to the MPS, are at maximum capacity or under construction.
Locations of Documented Penal Facilities
Please note that some penal facilities do not have known geolocations but are reflected in the province they were reported to be in.